The City of Cottage Grove is located in the following political districts:
- United States Senate District No. 1
- United States Congressional District No. 2
- Minnesota State Senate District No. 54
- Minnesota State House of Representative District Nos. 54A and 54B
- Washington County Commissioner District 4
- South Washington County School District 833 and Hastings School District 200. Both school districts hold School Board elections in November of odd-numbered years. School District 833 has 4 combined polling locations.